Improving behaviour – strategies for teachers

I have a suspicion that the latest EEF guidance report ‘Improving Behaviour in Schools’ will before long reach the top of the EEF’s download charts (if such a thing exists).

The reason is the demand.  All teachers have at some point in their careers had to struggle with behaviour.  Etched indelibly in our memories are the names of our greatest challenges, some successfully surmounted, others not.  As a result whenever advice is offered on how to tackle behaviour, our ears prick up.

Now the best advice I can give in terms of interpreting the report in your classroom would be to read all 52 pages of it.  However, the pragmatist in me realises that most of us, while interested, may simply not find the time to complete this undertaking.

Therefore this blog is designed to work in partnership with the blog written by my colleague Shaun Allison on the Durrington Research School website.  Shaun’s blog, that you can find here, summarises the six recommendations from the guidance report.  As a result this blog focuses on how classroom teachers can use six specific recommendations from the report to support their daily practice.

1: Get to know your pupils

As a teacher, regularly and intentionally focusing small amounts of time working on relationships with individual pupils can have a big impact. This could be as simple as asking about their weekend or how their football team is performing.  The importance of knowing your pupils is exemplified by this scenario from the guidance report:

BehaviourGR1

2: Establish-Maintain-Restore

A good way to build positive relationships with pupils is the Establish-Maintain-Restore (EMR) method, which has promising results from a small study.  Summarised below, it involves focusing intentionally on the pupils who it is most difficult to connect with, who may be most in need of a consistent, positive relationship.  It is recommended that this technique should take no longer than 30 minutes per week and can be completed during periods the adult already spends with pupils, representing an efficient use of time.

BehaviourGR3

3: Teach learning behaviours

While it is impossible to eradicate all misbehaviour, it can certainly be minimised and the general climate for learning can be improved through the explicit teaching of learning behaviours, reducing the need for teachers to constantly ‘manage’ behaviour.

A model developed by Ellis and Tod suggests that each of three pupil relationships – with themselves, with others and with the curriculum – impacts on the other, and positive change can be achieved by recognising which of these relationships needs to be developed or strengthened with specific teaching.  This could be for the whole class, for a small group, or on an individual basis.  The model is shown below:

BehaviourGR5

4: The Incredible Years Teaching Pyramid

BehaviourGR6

5: Greet students at the door

This is a simple one, but recent research conducted with 11-14 year-olds suggests that greeting students positively at the classroom door is not only very low cost but has a high yield in terms of improving pupil behaviour in the classroom.

6: Use the 5:1 ratio

This theory is that for every criticism or complaint the teacher issues, they should aim to give five specific compliments, approval statements and positive comments or non-verbal gestures.  Several interventions focusing on positive approaches to behaviour in classrooms promote this idea but a recent study has provided promising evidence of its effectiveness.

Posted by Chris Runeckles

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Curriculum Planning to Support Learning

As we continue to engage more and more with evidence from cognitive science and educational research, our knowledge and understanding of how we learn deepens.  For example, the idea of Cognitive Load Theory, frames our understanding of the idea of challenge – we need to make sure that the information presented to students is not too easy, or too demanding but just right and elicits thinking.  We also know that we learn by linking new information to existing knowledge – forming schema (an interconnected web of knowledge – more here)Spaced practice (repeatedly coming back to information that we are learning in various short sessions, spaced out over time, rather than cramming in a long intense period) and retrieval practice (the act of having to retrieve something from your memory, often with the help of a cue) are essential in terms of supporting long term memory retention.  There is also strong evidence to suggest that explicit instruction of tier 2 and 3 vocabulary, is a key factor in the educational success of students – especially those from a disadvantaged background.  And finally we should be giving a great deal of thought to threshold concepts in our subjects. A threshold concept is described below:

“A threshold concept can be considered as akin to a portal, opening up a new and previously inaccessible way of thinking about something. It represents a transformed way of understanding, or interpreting, or viewing something without which the learner cannot progress. As a consequence of comprehending a threshold concept there may thus be a transformed internal view of subject matter, subject landscape, or even world view. This transformation may be sudden or it may be protracted over a considerable period of time, with the transition to understanding proving troublesome. Such a transformed view or landscape may represent how people ‘think’ in a particular discipline, or how they perceive, apprehend, or experience particular phenomena within that discipline (or more generally).” (Meyer and Land, 2003).

These ideas should be framing how we plan our curriculum, in order to maximise the learning that is happening in our classrooms.  Here are some ideas of how we can do this.

Challenge

 

This quote from Martin Robinson is just fabulous. The message from it is simple.  Look at your curriculum (especially key stage 3) and increase the level of challenge within it, in terms of the knowledge you share with students, the richness of the vocabulary you expect them to use and the quality of the work you get them to produce – expect more of your students and make them think!

Spaced Practice

Curriculum time is tight and the reality is that we can’t spare huge amounts of time to repeat material that we have covered.  However, there are ways in which we can do this:

  • Plan homework as an integral part of your curriculum and use it as an opportunity to revisit previously covered material.
  • Within your short medium term curriculum planning, find opportunities to link new knowledge that is being taught to previously covered material.
  • Plan ‘pause lessons’ into the curriculum.  This is where no new material is covered, but previously covered material is revisited.

Linking to what we already know

Long term planning of the curriculum should see topics being returned to, developed and added to in greater depth, over the years.  So  the curriculum needs to be cumulative as layers of knowledge are built on top of each other and linked to each other.  This is how a well planned and sequenced curriculum becomes the model of progression in learning, as it builds upon previous learning.

Retrieval Practice

Plan into the curriculum opportunities for low stakes quizzes on previously covered material, but in a very strategic way.  So at set points in the curriculum, plan questions that will cover material that was covered last week, last term and last year.

Explicit Vocabulary Instruction

The curriculum should provide a map of the knowledge that will be taught over time.  This can be articulated as the key vocabulary (tier 2 and 3) that students need to know and be able to use confidently.  One way of doing this is to produce ‘knowledge organisers‘.  A knowledge organiser is a set of subject specific vocabulary, that provides the building blocks (the tier 2 and 3 vocabulary) of the subject.  If these are well thought out they provide a strong model of progression through the curriculum.

Threshold Concepts

Before designing a curriculum, you must decide on the high-utility concepts, facts and procedures that provide the building blocks in your subject/s. It is these that you must regularly return to.  Each subject curriculum should focus on these threshold concepts.     They are too important to be covered once, so they need to be threaded throughout the curriculum.  So this is, in effect, spacing – but it’s the regular and explicit spacing of these really important disciplinary ideas.

So, curriculum planning is a complex and important process, that should be shaped by what we know about how we learn.  In the words of Dylan Wiliam:

“A collection of learning materials is no more a curriculum than a pile of bricks is a house. What our students need are carefully organised, sequential, structured introductions to school subjects.”

Posted by Shaun Allison

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Self Explanation Bright Spots

In his research school blog Chris Runeckles (Blog) discusses the challenges of implementing self-explanation effectively into everyday classroom practice. There is no doubt that when used effectively self-explanation has the potential to promote greater progress than the more traditional approach of using teacher or exercise book explanations. The theory of self-explanation suggests that it is advantageous to learning to give students the opportunity to explain the meaning of new material or how they have come to answers/solutions themselves.  Such a definition seems to align itself with the work of Coe who questions depth of learning if students do not care evaluate their understanding, as long as they can correctly answer the questions/problems posed to them.

This week I have had the pleasure of observing lessons within the Geography department at Durrington, ranging from year 7 to year 11 lessons. This is always a fantastic experience and one from which I always take a lot, however this week was particularly useful with this blog in mind due to the number of self-explanation opportunities I observed.

Sam Atkins (Deputy Leader of Geography) was discussing the reasons behind changes in population structure as a country develops. The lesson culminated in the year 9 students attempting an exam style questions to “describe and explain” the changes in the demographic transition model. Before students began their answer, they engaged in a metacognitive deconstruction of the question. Exam question deconstruction can regularly become a surface learning activity with questions such as “what is the command word?” With very simple closed responses that require no elaboration. Instead Sam asked more challenging questions such as “what phrases would you use in this answer” and when given responses such as “this means that”, he asked students to justify their choices with reference to the meaning of the command words. Similarly he gave them alternative approaches, such as making 6 points for a 6 mark question and asked the students to explain why such an approach would be inappropriate. The subsequent responses not only showed strong subject knowledge but also a high level of understanding of the demands of the question. Most importantly Sam avoided the temptation to explain student responses back to the class, rather making it clear that unqualified/non-justified responses would require the student to self-explain. Sam prompted when students struggled but at no point to did he hijack the explanation unless there was a clear misconception developing.

In another lesson I was observing our PGCE student with a group of year 7 students, in this lesson students had begun the lesson with a low stake quiz that was using a combination of closed answer questions and MCQ’s to encourage retrieval practice. When going through the answers Katrina was focusing on her Socratic questioning to support her elaborative interrogation of student responses, using probing question such as “how do you know this?” Such questioning naturally encourages students to explain their responses, and when students had made a mistake on a MCQ not only did Katrina ensure all students had the correct response but she explained why, before then asking the student who had initially answered incorrectly to explain why their initial answer was wrong and why the correct answer was so. It must be remembered that when using MCQ it is imperative that incorrect answers are clearly identified and the reasons for them being wrong is clearly understood to prevent misconceptions becoming embedded.

Finally I observed Hannah Townsend with a year 8 class who again began their lesson with a low stake quiz that was challenging students to retrieve information from previous learning units. When going through answers Hannah was asking students to relate questions and responses to previous learning – for example when students had correctly answered questions regarding the impacts of climate change, Hannah then asked students to explain how such a theory could be linked to population density change in rural Kenya that they had studied previously. The self-explanation given by students to explain the potential links between these two topics, encouraged students to think hard about the content and more importantly showed an excellent understanding of how the curriculum knitted together and their understanding of this.

Self- explanation, as Chris concisely puts it, is an approach very vulnerable to poor interpretation/implantation, over simplification and misconceptions. However from just a few observations I can also clearly see how it can be used to challenge student thinking and allow for greater formative assessment of student understanding.

Posted by Ben Crockett

 

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Thinking About Teaching

In a previous post (Thinking About Curriculum) we shared how at Durrington we are thinking about curriculum, aligned with teaching and assessment. The curriculum outlines the key knowledge that students need to learn over their time with us in order to be successful. Effective teaching leads to students acquiring, retaining and applying this curriculum knowledge in the classroom and beyond.  This post outlines how we think about and discuss great teaching at Durrington and why we are confident that it is a sensible approach.

Learning happens when students connect new content to what they already know. To achieve this, we think teaching must involve:

  • Challenge so that students have high expectations of what they can achieve.
  • Explanation so that they acquire new knowledge.
  • Modelling so that students know how to apply their knowledge (including explicit modelling of metacognitive strategies and the thinking processes of adults).
  • Questioning so that students are made to think hard with breadth, depth and accuracy.
  • Feedback so that students further develop their knowledge.
  • Purposeful practice so that students think deeply and eventually achieve fluency.
  • Positive classroom climates and relationships.
  • Students are taught how to store and retrieve knowledge using learning strategies such as retrieval practice and spaced practice.

(‘Making Every Lesson Count’ by Allison & Tharby)

How do we achieve this?

  • Through a ‘tight but loose’ approach so that the six principles above are contextualised to the subject and the profile of the students.
  • Through an explicit instruction approach that includes specific practices such as reviewing previous learning, providing models for students, retrieval practice, planning in adequate time for students’ deliberate practice, ensuring appropriate challenge for all students and the effective scaffolding of this challenge.
  • By teachers asking both lower and higher cognitive questions to embed and develop knowledge.
  • By teachers modelling and explaining metacognitive processes by making excellence explicit, demonstrating the thinking processes of experts, and breaking down and solving problems. This will support the development of students’ planning, self-monitoring and self-evaluation skills.
  • Through written and verbal feedback, which should be an element of every lesson – as outlined in each department feedback policy.
  • By teaching metacognitive strategies explicitly.
  • Teachers teach tier two and tier three vocabulary explicitly through sentence stems, test sentences, images and other explicit instruction strategies.
  • Through collaborative subject-based CPD (SPDS) that maintain a consistent focus on developing pedagogical subject knowledge. These sessions should focus on how to effectively teach the curriculum over the next fortnight.
  • By creating and maintaining a productive classroom climate through positive interactions with students and adhering to the school behaviour policy. The most effective way of motivating students is to enable meaningful achievement.
  • Through the explicit instruction of cognitive science strategies including retrieval practice, spaced practice, dual coding, interleaving, concrete examples and elaboration.

Why do we trust this approach?

These six pedagogical principles are all rooted in robust research evidence.  With this in mind, we think this gives us the best chance of our teaching being successful.  Let’s take a look at the some of the research that has informed this approach.

  1. Rosenshine’sPrinciples of Instruction‘ talks about all six principles:

2. The Sutton Trust ‘What Makes Great Teaching‘ Review also describes many of the six principles:

3.  In ‘The Science of Learning‘ by Deans for Impact, they discuss the importance of explanation, practice and feedback:

4.  In ‘Strengthening the student toolbox: study strategies to boost learningJohn Dunlosky discusses the importance of distributed practice and interleaved practice.  Practice testing  and elaborative questioning are also aspects of questioning in the classroom.

5.  And finally Clark, Kirschner and Sweller, make a strong case for fully guided instruction, which comprises explanation, practice and feedback:

 

So we have discussed the importance of curriculum and teaching, in this and previous posts.  Next time we’ll talk about assessment.

If you are interested in working with members of the Durrington Research School team in your school on this, or any other aspect of evidence informed practice, use this form to get in touch.

Posted by Shaun Allison

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Self Testing: Strategies for the Classroom

Testing in schools is often met with angst and worry from both students and staff and it usually ends with an overwhelming sense of judgement. An ever-growing body of research actually suggests that low-stakes testing can improve learning. Furthermore, a cultural shift in the stakes held on testing to a lower non-social comparative can further enhance the opportunities to learn. Shaun Allison suggests several ways this can be done in a classroom in his blog ‘Rethinking Testing’ which can be found here.

Shaun suggests the following ways to use low stakes quizzing in the classroom:

  • questioning
  • retrieval quizzes from previous lessons
  • write everything you know about a particular topic
  • blind mind mapping
  • Cornell note taking
  • Flashcards
  • knowledge organiser
  • homework
  • complete the sequence.

There are many ways theses can be implemented into lessons, three of which are outlined below.

  1. Blind mind mapping – Starter task with a topic on the whiteboard, students then add anything they can retrieve from memory to the mind map using their normal colour pen (black). After 5 minutes or so students can then discuss their mind maps with their partner and add anything they did not have in a different colour (green). Once this task has been completed the class go through their mind maps together with the teacher on the whiteboard, anything missed off is then added in a third colour (red). The aim is for students to try and retain some of the red and green information next time this topic is completed or at home in their own revision sessions. A nice extension task to do would be try and use a fourth colour (purple) to create cross topic links to the mind map in an attempt to attach content to previously learned schema.
  2. Retrieval quizzes – A quiz on previously learned topic areas can be on the board as students enter the classroom, covering content from last lesson, last week, last month, last term and last year. Students answer the questions and the self-mark their work to create a low-stakes environment. Students can also be given 5 minutes to use their books or knowledge organisers to answer any questions they did not know in a different colour. The aim is for students to try and retain some of the information they did not know next time this topic is completed or at home in their own revision sessions. Another way this can be done is students write 10 questions with mark schemes across topics previously decided by the teacher. The students then have a set amount of time to get other students to answer their questions (one student answer per set of questions). Students then mark their own question
  3. Homework structure – a strategy for retaining year 10 content in cumulative examination based subjects is to use year 10 topics for homework throughout year 11. Another simple and effective way is to offset homework against in-class lessons by 2 or 3 weeks, giving the students time to ‘forget’ content and then have to retrieve it from memory a few weeks down the line

In an increasingly challenging environment, students are tested cumulatively and it is fundamental that our curriculums and lessons support the retention of content and that we develop strategies to aid the long term memory of our students.

 

James Crane

 

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The DOs and DON’Ts of collaborative learning

By Andy Tharby

Over 40 years of research evidence tells us that collaborative learning – when students work together on tasks in small groups – has a positive impact on learning.

The EEF Toolkit suggests that teachers think about the following five points when planning for students to work together:

1. Pupils need support and practice to work together; it does not happen automatically.

2. Tasks need to be designed carefully so that working together is effective and efficient, otherwise some pupils will try to work on their own.

3. Competition between groups can be used to support pupils in working together more effectively. However, overemphasis on competition can cause learners to focus on winning rather than succeeding in their learning.

4. It is particularly important to encourage lower achieving pupils to talk and articulate their thinking in collaborative tasks to ensure they benefit fully.

5. Have you considered what professional development is required to support effective use of these approaches?

Despite its potential, collaborative learning is often implemented very poorly in classrooms, leading many teachers to become sceptical about its impact (this author included!). Too often, group work leads to off-topic chatter, slow work output, the embedding of misconceptions and – every teacher’s favourite bugbear – an unhealthy dose of social loafing. (Described by social psychologists, this is the well-known phenomenon that occurs when a person exerts less effort in a group than they would when working individually.)

I have undergone many years of trial-and-error when trying to implement aspects of collaborative learning into my secondary English lessons. I cannot claim to be an expert in the area, but here are my suggestions – which are based, more often than not, on a fair quantity of abject failure!

DO set clear goals and expectations. These should include ambitious timescales, the expected quantity of work and the expected quality of work. You should also explain how each student will be made accountable for taking part. My favourite line is: “Once the ten minutes is up, I will choose five of you at random to explain your ideas to the rest of the class.” This way, every child knows that in ten minutes they could be the one in the spotlight.

DO keep groups as small as possible. The larger the number of people in a group, the greater the potential for social loafing. Personally, I prefer pair-work as this maximises the amount of talking and thinking that each individual is required to do.

DO create urgency. Tasks should usually be tight and focussed. A series of short, two-minute discussions is often more effective than an extended discussion over a longer period of time. This will depend, however, on the group, their age and their prior knowledge of the topic.

DO train students how to take part in a discussion. Ideally, teachers should choose the set of collaborative learning skills (or ‘learning habits’, as I prefer) that they would like their students to master over a year, and then create a sequence for teaching these. Perhaps in the Autumn Term, Y7s are taught how to take part in a ‘Think-Pair-Share’ discussion, and practise this for a term, maybe with supporting sentence stems to scaffold academic thought. Once this is mastered by the Spring Term, they are trained in how to develop questions in pairs. The point is that if these habits are to become embedded, they need to be introduced and practised gradually. Ideally, they should be considered part and parcel of the curriculum, rather than an afterthought. They have tremendous leverage when they are planned, implemented and evaluated across classrooms at a department level.

DO expect children to think for themselves before they share ideas in a group. We are usually more creative when we are working alone than we are when working as members of a group, which may be because most people have a tendency towards conformity and a tendency to yield to the majority. I often ask my groups to form their ideas first – sometimes through a short writing task – before sharing them with others, always without interruption. Only at that point are they ready to discuss them in a group.

DO use collaborative learning as a revision strategy. Retrieval practice and elaboration – connecting new information to prior knowledge – work very well as structured pair tasks. The act of explaining a new concept to a peer is a very powerful method of embedding new knowledge and identifying where you are stuck.

DON’T expect students to discover new concepts for themselves in groups. Tricky and difficult concepts usually require explicit teaching first. This is one of the main mistakes made when facilitating group work: the assumption that group work can replace teaching. It can’t.

DON’T make collaborative learning an end in itself. Your aim, as always, is to help students to acquire new knowledge. In most cases, group work is a tool, not a goal (with the significant exception of group based subjects like drama and PE).

DON’T overcomplicate group tasks. It is very easy for group tasks, which can involve complicated or convoluted instructions, to create cognitive overload, leading to little or no learning.

And finally … DON’T carry on with a collaborative learning task it if it is not working. 

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Explicit Vocabulary Instruction: Ideas for Primary Schools

Over the past few years we have been embedding explicit vocabulary instruction as a key whole-school literacy strategy here at Durrington. You can read about our vocabulary work here.

As part of developing this area of our curriculum, we are keen to explore how primary schools are using explicit vocabulary instruction and potential ways in which we can integrate practices to ensure a smooth and effective literacy transition from KS2 to KS3.

With this in mind, this week’s blog has been written by Laura Braun, Year 5 and 6 teacher and English Lead at Bury CE Primary School in West Sussex. In her blog, Laura explains how her school is using strategies to teach tier 2 and tier 3 vocabulary and the impact these have had so far.

Changes to our Practice

After attending training and reading lots (see references below) we started to make some plans for how to explicitly teach vocabulary.

We judge tier 2 and 3 vocabulary to be of equal importance. Tier 3 words enable you to learn more about a subject and tier 2 words help to use that tier 3 knowledge. The activities that we use are appropriate for both tiers.

Initially, we decided as a staff which of Coxhead’s tier 2 words we thought would be most important for our children to know by the end of Year 6. These are specific to our school, but may well be similar in other schools. We then divided these up into year groups and will now teach these in the year groups we have decided. Some of these have straight forward links to ‘topics’ that we are already teaching. For example, the tier 2 words ‘chronology’ and ‘source’ link perfectly to the historical units on the Maya. Some are much harder to link with a unit and will just be taught in a stand-alone way, like ‘perceive’. Some like ‘interpret’ we will be using regularly but we will still make sure that they are explicitly taught in the predefined year group.

There are many activities that we could use to help retrieval and build children’s confidence with vocabulary, but we have chosen to start with a few.

Initially we start by telling the children the meaning of the word. We don’t ask for what they think it means – this muddies the water if they don’t all have a secure understanding. We also make sure that our definitions do not use other tier 2 words – we keep it simple. We talk about linguistic links as well, for example root words, origin of the word, where the word may be seen and use it in sentences verbally.

We give the children a ‘child friendly but exact’ definition and an example. These are on show on the wall as well as in their books and on the knowledge organisers for that unit (you can read more about knowledge organisers here).

Vocab Match

We cut up the vocabulary and definitions and mix them up. Then, either individually, in pairs or as a class we match the words and definitions. Then we go through together to ensure they know the right answers.

Frayer Models

With the word in the centre of the page the children have to draw a picture to illustrate the word, write any roots words or linguistic links, use it in a sentence and write a definition.

Vocab Bingo

The children either have the vocab or the definitions on a bingo grid. I then call out either the definition or the word and the first child to have 5 correct wins.

Finding synonyms and explaining what it means verbally or in writing also form part of our work.

There are also dojo points available for using the word in their work and finding it in their reading.

Supporting Research Evidence

Evidence suggests that regular recall of vocabulary (and facts in general) will aid retention and that a child with a poor vocabulary will not have as great a life chance as those with wide vocabularies. We see in class that those children who can read fluently, both texts and questions, are able to access more knowledge, they are more articulate and can then discuss and analyse better. We also want them to be prepared for their secondary schooling and secondary teachers tell us that knowing this vocabulary will give them a ‘flying start’ to their KS3 education. Didau tells us that “A poor vocabulary is a huge barrier to academic success.”  The work of Gee explores how Children use 2 different ‘languages’ – a primary discourse and a secondary discourse​. Primary discourse is home language – it may not be the ’Queen’s English’ and is usually linked to cultural backgrounds and affluence of family​. Secondary discourse – school language –expectations at school are different to home . Children may be expected to express themselves differently at home and at school. Generally, for white ‘middle class’ children the primary and secondary discourse is same. Conversely, children from different backgrounds might need to make a huge jump in vocabulary to attain secondary discourse. ​ As teachers we are responsible for enabling children to learn the vocabulary​ and its inherent concepts that are part of the secondary discourse.

Lastly, according to The Communication Trust “There is strong evidence to show that the development of speech, language and communication in the early years has a profound and far reaching impact on a child’s life chances.”

The Impact So Far…

Anecdotally, our children across school are more confident in both using and understanding the vocabulary that we have taught. We have decided to ‘assess’ them at the end of each unit, not by using a test but by our knowledge of the children (this may be harder in a large school.) We track this using the ‘Insight’ tracking program.

We have only been using this method for the past 2 terms and it is still in its infancy but we have high hopes!

Next Steps

  1. We need to work out where and how best to make sure the tier 2 vocabulary that doesn’t link directly with topics is taught.
  2. We also need to make sure that explicit vocabulary instruction is given the same priority across school, including with TAs and returning teachers or new staff.
  3. We need to regularly assess whether the tier 2 words that we have chosen are still appropriate and if they need putting into different year groups.

Advice for Teachers Who Are Looking to Do Something Similar

  • You can access our Tier 2 word lists by group (KS2 words have definitions, KS1 words don’t yet!)  and these will be a good start. Please see the link below.
  • Don’t try to make the activities too long – 5 minutes is enough.
  • Try to make the activities happen regularly –  3 times a week if possible.
  • Decide on the words that you would like to focus on as a whole staff – each teacher will know what is important for their children better than anyone else.
  • If you are a subject leader implementing the process, then make sure that everyone in the team knows why it is important and give them prepared things to use. Perhaps have a staff meeting jointly creating resources.

Further Reading

Blogs

https://learningspy.co.uk/literacy/closing-language-gap-building-vocabulary/   David Didau

https://blog.bedrocklearning.org/blog/teaching-tier-two-words ​

https://primarytimery.com/2017/10/28/the-3d-curriculum-that-promotes-remembering/  Clare Sealy​

https://classteaching.wordpress.com/2016/12/08/teaching-tier-2-vocabulary/ ​

Books

Beck, McKeown and Kucan – Bringing words to life – 2nd edition​

Alex Quigley – Closing the Vocabulary Gap​

Articles

https://impact.chartered.college/article/beck-deepening-knowledge-through-vocabulary-learning/

https://www.victoria.ac.nz/lals/resources/academicwordlist/most-frequent  Averil Coxhead Tier 2

Bury CE Primary Tier 2 words list

https://bit.ly/2EL4OVN

 

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