I, We, You – A Simple Approach To Modelling

By Andy Tharby

Modelling is the bit in the middle. It is the teaching stage that comes between the teacher’s explanation of a task or procedure and student practice. It is also the stage that is so often left out or not given enough attention by teachers. Modelling has a number of purposes: to lift the veil on hidden thinking; to demonstrate and break down step-by-step procedures; and to provide excellent examples for students to emulate.

Without careful modelling, many students are left feeling rudderless and all at sea. They have little conception of what the final product, the goal, should look like, and they do not understand the small steps they need to go through to achieve success. Inevitably, without models their thinking – and subsequent work – becomes patchy and filled with avoidable errors. Ultimately, modelling brings greater clarity.

What is less clear, however, is the best way to encourage and train teachers to become better at modelling. We know we should be modelling as often as we can – but when, and how?

We have tried a number of approaches at Durrington, but the one that has had the most traction with teachers and students has been the simple I-We-You approach:

  • I do it first.
  • We do it together.
  • You do it on your own.

It is a very simple apprenticeship model, in which the teacher passes over their expertise to the student in a series of staged, scaffolded steps. It also dovetails perfectly with what education research tells about effective teaching – see Rosenshine’s Priniciples of Instruction, for instance, or the research on the need to reduce cognitive load.

  • The I-stage involves the teacher demonstrating to the class how to perform a task or procedure. This might be writing a paragraph, solving an equation or serving a tennis ball. This could take the form of a ‘live-model’ – when the teacher uses a visualiser, the board or a physical demonstration to talk their students through a new procedure. A pre-written worked-example is another option – these are especially useful when they are labelled with the steps students should go through. Models should always be deconstructed in the first instance.
  • The We-stage involves joint construction. In this step, students encounter a second problem which has the same deep-structure as the first problem (that covered in the Istage) but with different surface features. For example, an equation that needs to be solved through the same procedure, or a paragraph about a slightly different topic that requires students to use the same strategy. In the We-stage, teachers and students collaborate on the building of a second example, usually through questioning and dialogue.
  • The Youstage involves independent practice. This means that the students work alone on a third, similar problem. This might be a partially completed problem or task – perhaps they are given sentence starters or some of the steps are already done for them. Another approach is to ensure that the original model or worked example remains visible to remind them of the steps they need to take. At this stage, the teacher might be quietly intervening with individual students who need extra support. The You-stage should not be considered to be analogous with exam-conditions; instead, it is about withdrawing, or fading, some level of support, rather than removing it altogether.

This has been a very simple overview of the I-We-You model. It is important to keep it a flexible and adaptable model of teaching – sometimes classes might need repeated ‘we’ modelling, sometimes you might need to stop the independent practice and go back to the starting blocks.

This form of modelling does come with its own pitfalls and can lead to misunderstandings among teachers. For instance:

  1. It’s important to remember that the goal of this kind of modelling is to introduce new procedures in a gradual, incremental way so that, eventually, students can apply them to new and novel scenarios. The You-stage, therefore, is the most important – and it needs to be repeated regularly. If this does not occur, then students will learn the examples – i.e. what the teacher  wrote – but will not know how to (or that they need to) use the procedure in new situations. The goal of modelling should always be that students learn to independently transfer the procedure to new contexts.

2. Removing scaffolding is part of the artistry of teaching. Remove too quickly and students will not be ready and will miss out vital steps. Remove too slowly and you might cause learned helplessness, which occurs when students become too reliant on the scaffold and struggle to work independently.

3. Lack of reflection. It’s important to think through and talk through the effectiveness of the strategy with the group. Useful questions include: What worked well? What did you find hard? How would you approach it differently next time?

4. Modelling is no substitute for knowledge. This is especially the case when modelling writing. Students always need a handle on the subject they are writing about before attempting more difficult writing tasks.

We have found the I-We-You approach to be a useful way into modelling with many teachers. We urge you to try it out for yourself.

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Explanation – researchED Kent 2018

On Saturday Andy Tharby was at researchED Kent. Andy was talking about his new book ‘How to explain absolutely anything to absolutely anyone: The art and science of teacher explanation’.

Here are the slides from his talk:

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What does an evidence informed school look like? researchED Kent 2018

This Saturday I talked at researchED Kent about what I thought the ‘active ingredients’ of an evidence informed school might be.  Over the last few years we have been working at Durrington to become more evidence-informed.  Furthermore as a research school, we have been fortunate enough to work with many other schools who are trying to do the same.  Based on this, here are my thoughts about what a checklist for an evidence informed school might look like:

  • Have an SLT that is committed to an evidence informed approach – even when it sometimes seems counter-intuitive.
  • Have a shared understanding about what effective teaching looks like and communicate this – based on research evidence.
  • Use research evidence to shape the curriculum and assessment.
  • Use evidence (such as the EEF toolkit)  to filter and shape whole school approaches and policies.
  • Look out for ‘red flags’ when looking at research and ignore any research that doesn’t appear to be robust.
  • Use CPD activities to communicate and mobilise useful research evidence to staff.
  • Make sure that CPD is shaped by the research evidence for effective CPD.
  • Use effective implementation strategies when planning change – using the EEF implementation guide.
  • Rigorously evaluate interventions to find out if they are working. The ‘EEF DIY Evaluation Guide’ is great for this.
  • Use research evidence to make decisions around strategic funding e.g. the pupil premium fund (look at these brilliant resources from Marc Rowland)
  • Adopt a disciplined inquiry approach to appraisal
  • Be brave enough to stop flogging dead horses.

Here are the slides from my talk:

Posted by Shaun Allison

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The Micro-Rules of Reading: Supporting Students’ Reading in Every Subject

At Durrington we are aware that different subjects work with texts that require very specific reading skills. The texts that students encounter in PE will be very different to those that they encounter in Geography, for example. With this disciplinary awareness in mind, we are currently thinking about how to support students and teachers with the subject-specific reading that occurs day-to-day in classrooms across the curriculum.

A seminal text that is guiding our discussions, and shapes this blog post, is Reading Reconsidered by Doug Lemov, Colleen Driggs and Erica Woolway. This book is a treasure trove of practical explanation, advice and ideas for how to increase the effectiveness of reading instruction in schools so that students are aptly prepared for the demands (and pleasures)of reading in later life.

Sometimes, there can be a propensity to think of reading instruction in schools (especially secondary schools) as firmly rooted in the English classroom alone. Coupled with this, it can be difficult for other subject teachers to find guidance on how to successfully develop the specific reading skills required for their subject. Lemov et al’s book explores how to support students with reading non-fiction texts, a genre category that is fundamental to every discipline, and therefore pertinent to every teacher irrespective of their specialism.

According to Lemov et al, one of the main challenges teachers encounter when asking students to engage with non-fiction texts are the ‘micro rules’. These micro-rules are obvious to experienced non-fiction readers but can be very confusing to novices. Additionally, the micro-rules appear to be more or less significant in different subjects, and so correlate to our understanding that reading is most effectively taught through a disciplinary approach. The micro-rules that Lemov et al identify are:

  1. The universal article: When the refers to an entire species instead of one example. This is commonly found in non-fiction science texts, for example the polar bear has thick, white fur for insulation and camouflage refers to all polar bears, not just one animal.
  2. Synonyms: Non-fiction texts often use synonyms because they are written for publication and so require creative flair. For example, Americans are often referred to as ‘our cousins across the pond’ in UK publications.
  3. Optional parenthetical: Consider the sentence ‘Trout, any of several prized game and food fishes of the family Salmonidae (order Salmoniformes) are usually restricted to freshwater’. Non-fiction texts are aimed at different levels of reader. This means that non-fiction writers often include information in brackets that is an optional extra – some readers will read this and some will ignore entirely or come back to it later. A good example is the use of Latin names when writing about species, as exemplified in the sentence above.
  4. Throwaway references: In non-fiction texts for newspapers, magazines or journals every quote has to be referenced for legal reasons. Readers, therefore, have to know when the reference is integral to comprehension of the text and when the reference can be ignored.
  5. Generic numbers: Writers of non-fiction will often use generic numbers to create an impression. Often, the specific number does not require the cognitive effort of being considered in detail as the reader just needs to recall the general point. For example, a current GCSE Geography exam paper uses the sentence ‘Study Figure 2, a map showing how global surface temperatures might change by 2070’. Here, the reader does not need to specifically know or think about the year 2070 but instead needs the awareness that this sentence requires consideration about a time in the not-too-distant future.

Many non-fiction texts also use a non-linear layout that includes sidebars, captions and subheadings etc. These formats can create confusion about what is important to read, and in what order the information should be read.

Ideas for Non-Fiction Reading Practice in the Classroom

  1. Firstly, make sure that you introduce lots of non-fiction texts. Do this by reading deeply about a single subject across different types of text, i.e. read several texts about the same topic in batches or themes rather than texts about multiple topics in isolation. Alternatively, have a primary text in place and then incorporate lots of secondary non-fiction texts to read around the primary text.
  2. Read aloud non-fiction texts – reading aloud is not just for primary school. Reading non-fiction texts aloud is a great opportunity to for students to access texts that are above their reading age but contain information that they need to know. Reading aloud also models the difference in prosody between a fiction and non-fiction text.
  3. Identify the micro rules that are common in your subject area. Draw attention to these micro rules and explicitly teach students how to navigate and use them for reading in your subject area.
  4. Use real-life non-fiction texts rather than ones that have been adapted for school use. Similarly, avoid simplifying texts that have non-linear formats. Instead, model how to read these texts: students will encounter authentic texts more and more in secondary school and so early introduction is best.
  5. Proficient readers of non-fiction texts have often developed their own rules for reading, but these only come with experience. To support non-experienced readers, it can be beneficial to provide some basic rules to begin. For example, with non-linear texts the reader should never stop mid-sentence and only jump to a sidebar at the end of a paragraph.

Fran Haynes

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Masters Reflections – The home/school relationship

At Durrington, teachers in their first five years of teaching are offered the opportunity to study a part-funded masters in education through the University of Brighton, led by Dr Brian Marsh.  Last week, Ben Crockett shared his reflections about following and then successfully completing his masters.  This week, PE teacher Louise Wallis-Tayler does the same:

Why did you decide to do a masters?

I decided to take part in a masters as I have not studied academically for over 10 years and when I saw this opportunity I thought it would be a good challenge to set myself. I wanted to reflect on my own teaching and hoped that it would improve my own classroom practice, as it would support me to become more evidence informed. I am not the kind of person who likes to be complacent and therefore looking at how I can develop my teaching is something I always want to do.

What was the focus of your dissertation and why did you choose this topic?

Research question: How do we support our parents in their child’s learning? Studying the home-school relationship and the potential impact closing this gap could have.

This study aimed to look at how we can help support parents and give them tools to be able to assist with their child’s work at home and potentially their achievement. Over the years I have met all sorts of families with such varied input in their child’s education and this has only become even more interesting to me as the years have gone on and starting at a different school. From a personal point of view, I strongly feel that having parents who were interested in education and who were able to support me at home has given me all sorts of skills and confidence that I may not have thought at the time. I approached this as my area of study with a real passion for building and strengthening relationships both with school and parents but also parent and child.

There are a number of studies based around the impact parental engagement can have and these vary from as early as 1947 to the current day.

For example; (Campbell 2011, p.5) states, “There is significant research, nationally and internationally to suggest that parental involvement in children’s learning is positively related to achievement.”

My study began with the use of questionnaires for parents and students (across all year groups) to judge their opinions on how best they work at home. I then asked if there was any support they feel they needed or how we as a school could better develop this link.

From these results, it was clear that parents wanted to help but maybe did not feel confident in all subject areas. This made me reflect on our current department practice and so my study looked at hosting ‘parent support evenings’ for a target group of GCSE PE students. The aim of the evenings was to give the parents the skills to be able to support their chid at home with the ever growing and demanding theory content.

Hill and Taylor (2004, p.162) have highlighted that, “… In the context of greater accountability and demands for children’s achievement, schools and families have formed partnerships and share the responsibilities for children’s education.”

Working in partnership ensures that students have a consistent approach to their education. By partnership, my aim was to have a collaborative approach between home and school. For me this was highlighted through using the same exam techniques and expectations in terms of responses. If the parents know the way in which the department approaches the exam then this can be replicated at home.

I then also questioned teachers opinions on this area and used case studies of students whose parents attended the evenings.

What did you learn from this?

  • I learnt that students, whilst they may not want to admit it (in particular the older boys) they do want their parents help and felt they needed their support. The students were aware of the importance of homework and that it supported their learning at school. The majority of students said that they completed homework as they wanted to do well at school. The majority of students completed their homework in either their bedroom or a dinner table.
  • The parents who answered the questionnaire on the whole wanted to help their child and saw the impact this could have. The level of confidence of the parents depended on their level of education and they all had subject areas where they did not feel they could help. The majority of parents said they helped by checking answers, checking spellings and looking at general work rate. Parents of older students stated that they used google to check answers and that they did not feel confident in all subject areas –  this was the reasoning for setting up the ‘parent support evenings’ in my own subject PE.
  • The ‘parent-support evenings’ were well received and parents were able to gain knowledge in specific exam and revision techniques we use within PE. The parents feedback was mainly positive with some still needing help in subject content. The students feedback from the evenings was strong and they were grateful for the support. The parents and pupils were given a revision pack to take home and the evening went through ways to use these at home. Being a teacher of some of these students over the two year period, it was clear that it had an impact on most of the students work rate and attitude. Whilst with the year 11 students this may have been a natural progression, the fact that I had a good relationship with their parents  definitely helped with some of the more challenging students.  However, there are clearly many factors that can influence a child’s work rate and attitude (and this was a small sample), so we need to be cautious when drawing a causal link with this. 

How has this impacted on your teaching/leadership?

  • We have developed these evenings over the past two years and they have been really well supported by the PE department. I have been very lucky that the other members of staff have helped with trying to get as many students  to attend and also to support in the delivery of the evening.
  • The evenings have highlighted how we as a department have tried to keep communication with home at the forefront in terms of student progress. Having these evenings have also given parents the chance to ask more specific PE questions and have opened up that dialogue.
  • It has helped us to look at our own revision resources  and to create even more for the students. We will now look at the current year 11 students and how we can develop the programme this year. We are going to look at hosting one evening with a weekly email attachment of exam questions in the run up to the exams in May.

What has been the best thing about doing a masters?  

  • The biggest challenge I faced was trying to get the parents in for the ‘parent support evenings.’ This forced me to look at reasons why parents migh not engage with their child’s school and/or learning.

What challenges has it presented and how did you overcome these?

  • It has been a challenge, but now that I have passed it has definitely been worth it. I have really enjoyed the academic reading and also putting it into practice within our department. It has been very interesting to get opinions from staff, students and parents and looking at how we can close the gap.
  • Research carried out by The Nuffield Foundation in a number of secondary schools across the northwest aiming to improve parent/school partnerships found that the nature of secondary schools could form a barrier and there are several reasons why engagement at secondary level is not as easy for parents:
    • Secondary schools tend to be larger and further from home.
    • The curriculum is more sophisticated.
    • Pupils have more than one teacher.
    • Parents of older pupils are more likely to be in full-time employment.
    • Children are beginning to establish a sense of separation from their parents.” (Campbell 2011 p.5)
  • Whilst looking at the groups of students that we targeted, each one has such a different home context, so the challenge for me was to try to suit everybody. Whilst looking at the borderline students there are some whose parents had never attended parents’ evenings before and whose phone numbers were disconnected. The challenge was to be able to try and get them involved, although this study may not have catered for the extremely hard to reach parents and carers.

In December 2018, the EEF will producing a new guidance report entitled ‘Working with parents to support children’s learning’.  It will be available here.



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Interpreting formative assessment

Exemplification was the focus of one of the sessions at the recent Research Schools Network national conference at Peterborough.  We were discussing what makes the best examples when trying to explain abstract concepts or procedures to delegates at our training programmes.  It fits with the idea of concrete examples that we know has a powerful effect on helping students to learn new ideas.

One exemplification the Research Schools Network currently uses for the idea of the active ingredients of a school intervention is that of a Battenberg cake i.e. what are the non-negotiables that makes a Battenberg a Battenberg?  Is it the colours?  Is it the marzipan?  This is used as a way of getting across the idea that for an intervention to be what it sets out to be, there are certain ingredients that must always be present.

One of my main targets this year is to rebalance summative and formative assessment in KS3 through formative assessment asserting itself as the rightful top dog in this relationship.  In exemplifying to staff why summative assessment can inhibit formative assessment I have used the analogy of a strangling fig.Strangling fig

I wrestled with the best way of exemplifying this idea for some time.  The point I have been trying to get across is that we start out with the best intentions for formative assessment to take priority; you will see it in many policy documents across the country.  However, over time, due to a variety of reasons (many linked to teacher accountability), summative assessment starts to take over.  Eventually we look up and see that our curriculum and teaching are being directed more and more towards periodic summative assessment.  The result is that the rich formative assessment we set out wanting to prioritise gets submerged by the demands of summative assessment.

Hence the strangling fig.

At today’s INSET I reminded staff of my favourite analogy and attempted to refocus us on the formative.  The conduit I used for this were the five strategies for effective formative assessment suggested by education guru Dylan Wiliam in his book Embedded Formative Assessment.  Rather than just share the strategies with staff I added three practical ways they could be interpreted in the classroom to reflect good formative assessment.  The results are shown below:

Clarifying, sharing, and understanding learning intentions and criteria for success.

  • Setting benchmarks of brilliance. Unpicking these with students and using questioning to assess students’ understanding.
  • Adapting your lessons based on work you have recently marked or read/observed.
  • Teaching a metacognitive approach to a question type that students have struggled with.

Engineering effective classroom discussions, activities, and learning tasks that elicit evidence of learning.

  • Prioritising elaborative questions for students with a focus on checking for deeper understanding.
  • Using Socratic questioning to check whether students know why a correct answer is correct.
  • Use live marking to check for understanding as tasks are being completed and to ensure misconceptions do not become embedded.

Providing feedback that moves learning forward.

  • Using whole class feedback following summative assessment or book looks.
  • Adapting your teaching to address areas of weakness you have identified.
  • Quizzing students and then providing immediate feedback.

Activating learners as instructional resources for one another.

  • Giving students the chance to discuss their work with each other, and particularly challenge each other.
  • Designing peer feedback activities with tight parameters that allow students to recognise both strengths and weaknesses.
  • Using worked examples from students within your class to identify ways to improve.

Activating learners as owners of their own learning.

  • Providing students with checklists to allow them to assess their own strengths and weaknesses.
  • Explicitly teaching metacognitive thinking around the most difficult processes or concepts in your subject.
  • Using regular quizzing to reveal to students where the gaps in their knowledge are.

Hopefully the above strategies and their application will ensure that our formative assessment stays healthy and can coexist happily with our summative assessment, rather than being subdued by it.

Posted by Chris Runeckles

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Mastering Metacognition

At Durrington, teachers in their first five years of teaching are offered the opportunity to study a part-funded masters in education through the University of Brighton, led by Dr Brian Marsh.  Our Head of Geography Ben Crockett, has just successfully passed his masters after two years of hard work.  In this post he reflects on his experience:

Why did you decide to do a masters?

Three main avenues of reasoning:

  1. Personal Development – having completed my PCGE with 60 masters credit I was keen to complete the full qualification, and the opportunity provided by the school and its partnership with Brighton University was a great opportunity.
  2. Keen to reengage with academia and challenge myself. It is easy when teaching, (particularly with no A-Level) to become complacent as much of the subject knowledge is embedded. Doing a masters gave me an opportunity to intellectually challenge myself and reengage with the process of learning – in fact it turned out to be useful in regaining perspective of students being in the struggle zone!
  3. Desire to connect research in academia with class room practice. While I don’t think teachers tacit understanding and “gut feeling” of what works in their classroom should ever be ignored, at the same time too many processes occur in the classroom without seemingly good reason or evidence to support their deployment. In wanting to improve my teaching and the teaching going on in my department, I wanted to make sure that what I was doing with could be empirically supported with evidence

What was the focus of your dissertation and why did you choose this topic?

Research Question: Can direct metacognitive instruction enhance 13-14 year old high school students’ metacognitive awareness and capabilities?

Despite a track record of success in the department, that has traditionally and continues to use a relatively direct method of instruction, I was becoming increasingly concerned that the increasing demand being placed on students to retain and apply vast amounts of information to answer synoptic problems in the new examinations meant that teaching can no longer rely on students simply having knowledge. Of course without knowledge students would be ill-equipped to solve problems, but likewise the inability, unawareness or reluctance I observe in many students to “think about their thinking”, plan, monitor and evaluate their learning is increasingly concerning. In fact discussions I have had with some students indicated that some expect or rely on the teacher to do this regulation for them. I was therefore interested in how direct instruction methods could be used to develop metacognitive abilities within students. I investigated the metacognitive awareness of fifty-seven 13-14 year old students using an adapted form of the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (Schraw and Denison, 1994).

My study investigated whether students’ metacognitive skills could be developed, using a range of explicit metacognitive instruction strategies referenced by the research literature. Importantly metacognition was modelled alongside the teaching of content, as encouraged by Swanson (2000). A control group provided a baseline of natural metacognitive awareness development. The modified format of the MAI (Schraw and Denison, 1994)  was  provided to students at the beginning and end of an academic term, alongside interviews, to judge changes in student’s metacognitive awareness.

As it was small scale, I would have liked to have seen if a link could be determined with academic outcomes, but the research wisely focused more on the metacognitive processes, with an assumption based on literature, that if these develop, then academic outcome should show positive trends as a result. There is a wide body of literature particularly from the USA, not just that outlined by the EEF toolkit, regarding the positive academic impacts of well–developed metacognitive skills. It is generally assumed that subject experts (aka teachers) have such developed skills. However these skills can become embedded in the expert processes, and thus become covert to observers and even the expert themselves. Subsequently they are either not modelled to students or students fail to observe them, and as such students miss out on a valuable processes that experts engage with when successfully completing tasks.

What did you learn from this?

  • Metacognition, although important and clearly supported by evidence in regards to its impact on academic performance, is not naturally developed in a large number of students. While most students (13-14 years old) demonstrate strong metamemory (i.e. understanding of their knowledge, what they are strong at and where their weaknesses are in knowledge), they generally have poorly developed metacognitive skills such as monitoring, planning, evaluating and regulating.
  • When compared to their nearest subject experts (teachers) students predominantly believed themselves to be less effective problem solvers, with the majority of students justifying this in relation to a lack of subject knowledge or experience versus their teacher – there was minimal appreciation or awareness of the role of metacognitive processes undertaken by teachers, with many students seeming to hold the false belief that teachers “just get it”.
  • Post intervention data showed very little change in the control group, whereas the experimental group saw a significant shift in students self-awareness of the metacognitive processes they engaged in, with higher numbers of students self-reporting that they did metacognitive activities such as planning and considering strategies, evaluating task performance and monitoring on task progress.
  • While there was only a slight change in the number of students believing themselves to be as good as their teachers at solving problems (understandable as students do assume their teachers to be better than they are) there was a much higher number of students showing an awareness that this difference could not be solely attributed to subject knowledge or experience, and that the metacognitive thought processes of the expert played a significant role in determining outcomes.

How has this impacted on your teaching/leadership?

Much more aware of the challenges faced in metacognitive instruction and the tendency for it to become covert. Subsequently my own teaching and that of the department has focused on ensuring that the metacognitive processes that we undertake are explicitly modelled so students and that students are given resources that guide them to engage in metacognitive processes more often.

What has been the best thing about doing a masters?

  • Engaging in research and academia.
  • The challenge.
  • Being a learner again.
  • The opportunity to take control and make informed changes to your practice.
  • Disseminating findings to rest of the team.

What challenges has it presented and how did you overcome these?

  • Time management – running a large department with over 160 students taking GCSE geog in yr 10 and 11, while completing a masters has been tough. Finding time to do the duties required of this position and then complete my own studies has been tough – getting in after a 5 period day knowing you need to write a few pages on your research paradigm and the ethical considerations of your study requires a lot of will power – and coffee!
  • Not allowing the changes to your pedagogy with the experimental groups to impact on your teaching of other groups until the data proves that it is effective – again it is that gut feeling of the teacher versus the actual evidence.
  • Ethical issues:
  1. As an inside researcher completing an action research project in your own setting has its advantages such as easy access and familiarity, however at the same time it has its challenges. Working with my students presented an issue in regards to my power relationship with them – I had to question if they were going to answer honestly or as they thought they should to please me. To overcome this I asked other teachers to complete the interviews but this did mean that I couldn’t direct the interviews as I may have wished. Similarly had I been working with colleagues, I would have had to consider the power dynamics – would I have felt comfortable interviewing an SLT member, while at the same time would an NQT have felt comfortable about being interviewed by me.
  2. Control group – an ethical minefield!  A control group was necessary to evaluate the impacts of the change in practice versus the natural growth of metacognition.  However using control groups in education is not necessarily a favoured route with many researchers and teachers, arguing that you shouldn’t use this approach without potentially beneficial practice from certain groups. At times I felt quite uneasy about doing it.

If you want to learn more about metacognition and how it can be mobilised in the classroom, take a look at the Durrington Research School training programme – ‘Understanding and using the EEF metacognition and self regulated learning guide’.

Posted by Shaun Allison

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