Teaching Talk – Temple & Trignano

teaching-talk

Kicking off our series of #TeachingTalk films are Steph Temple (Director of Science) & Simona Trignano (Deputy Leader of Science).  Steph and Simona are talking about how they approach feedback, high standards of student presentation of work and how they are ensuring that they are using Subject Planning & Development Sessions to develop subject knowledge.

TT2 Temple and Trigano – Enhanced Feedback and Subject Knowledge from Jason Ramasami on Vimeo.

Created by Jason Ramasami

Posted by Shaun Allison

Posted in General Teaching, Teaching Talk | Tagged | 1 Comment

Teaching Talk – New for 2017

teaching-talk

At Durrington, our teaching is based on a ‘tight but loose’ model around six pedagogical principles – more here.  Informed by  a mixture of research evidence and the wisdom of our very best teachers, teachers at Durrington are free to implement these pedagogical principles in a way that suits them best.  As a result, we have grown a culture where teachers talk about and think about teaching a great deal.  Our whole approach to CPD is framed around this – talking about what works, but most importantly, talking about what works in your subject.  In the words of the great Sir Tim Brighouse:

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We are also fortunate enough to have Jason Ramasami working at Durrington.  As well as being a great teacher, Jason is also a very talented illustrator and film maker.  With this in mind, we are launching a new project in 2017 – Teaching Talk.  Jason has been talking to our teachers about what they do in their classrooms on a day to day basis, and then putting these conversations together into short film clips.  The result has been a collection of short, insightful conversations, captured on film, where teachers are simply talking about their day to day practice.  Nothing gimmicky, nothing showy – but just good, solid teaching.  It’s not about best practice, it’s about their practice.  It’s not about telling how you should do it, it’s about sharing with you, how they do it.  Within that, there might be something that sparks an idea within you.

#TeachingTalk

I’ve often said that if you put teachers in a room and get them to talk about teaching, magic happens!  We’ve been fortunate enough to capture some of this magic on video, and we will share it on this blog, by publishing the videos on a regular basis throughout the year.

There is much to be glum about in the world and education at the moment, much of which we can do very little about.  However, there is also much to celebrate – the brilliant work that teachers up and down the country do, day in and day out.   That’s what we’ll continue to do in 2017.

Watch this space – the first ‘Teaching Talk’ video will be coming soon.  In the meantime….

 

TT1 Shaun Allison – No More Showy Gimmicks from Jason Ramasami on Vimeo.

Posted in General Teaching, Teaching Talk | Tagged | 5 Comments

2016 – a Review

As the end of the year approaches (and thankfully the end of the long and busy Autumn Term) we wanted to take an opportunity to review the year from this blog. Shaun and I have selected our favourite post from classteaching, as well as our favourite ‘Blog of the Week’ from each month.

January

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Andy Tharby gave a very insightful 15 Minute Forum on cognitive load theory. Essentially the message was ‘Keep it Simple’, to ensure that we do not ‘overload’ our students’ memories.

Thinking Hard … and why we avoid it

A great blog from Alex Quigley which discussed the importance of thinking hard for students’ memories and why teachers avoid it in their lessons.

February

Chris Runeckles presented our whole-school approach to homework which explores how we can make it more meaningful for student learning. There are four aspects to our approach to homework; each task should either extend, embed, improve or apply and shouldn’t require any further direct teacher input.

Learning is Liminal

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This excellent post by David Didau highlighted the complex path between students knowing and not knowing a new concept. He described the transitional state of liminality and as such the difficulty that teachers and students have when trying to identify when a concept has been learnt.

March

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As a school we promote hard work and effort and believe that both are linked to successful outcomes for our students. Jo Grimwood gave a great 15 Minute Forum review of Matthew Syed’s book ‘Bounce’ and investigated the key idea – Natural talent is a myth – you’re not born good at something, you work hard to become better at what it is you do.

The danger of dressing up our subjects as something else.

In this interesting blog Michael Fordham articulates why teachers should spark an interest in their subject because it is intrinsically interesting, rather than trying to make it interesting through other means.

April

Jack Tyler led an excellent 15 Minute Forum demonstrating how he used an IPEVO desktop camera to help improve the quality of his teaching. Jack showed how he used the camera for modelling, peer feedback and explanation to extend the understanding of his students.

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Is effective teaching more about good relationships than anything else? 

Carl Hendrick wrote this excellent blog about the importance of relationships. This is certainly something which is important in our school and the strength of the relationship between teacher and pupil is intrinsically linked to the outcomes of that student.

May

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As exam season began with earnest, Shaun wrote about two conversations related to the front of the classroom. These two conversations involved two small, but significant points about why teachers should stop and think about how they deliver their lessons.

Using exit tickets to assess and plan: ‘The tuning fork of teaching’

This blog by Harry Fletcher-Wood discussed the impact that exit tickets can have on how teachers plan their lessons. Whilst, it will not be accepted by everyone, the content will certainly raise some discussion.

June

June saw the fifth annual Durrington High School TeachMeet with a mixture of paella and pedagogy. This blog summarised the keynote speech by Sir Tim Brighouse as well as the presentations from the contributors.

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You can sign up for TeachMeet Durrington in 2017 here.

Not all practice is created equal.

Sporticus wrote this excellent blog about the importance of purposeful practice. This type of practice rather than naïve practice will have the greatest chance of improving our students’ performance.

July

At the end of the academic year Durrington confirmed that during the next year, department meetings would take a completely different approach. Rather than being administration based, each department would meet fortnightly to discuss subject-specific CPD.

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The aim of these sessions is to allow departments to collaboratively plan, discuss common misconceptions and discuss the best strategies for teaching each topic. This would then lead to the ultimate aim of improving the quality of our teaching and learning and improving the outcomes of our students. This blog from September summarises the first of these sessions.

12 Pointers Towards Great Teaching Assessment and Learning

Stephen Tierney suggested these 12 excellent approaches to improving the quality of teaching, assessment and learning.

September

A new school year began and as always expectations were high. The first 15 Minute Forum of the year was led by Director of Art and Design & Technology Gail Christie. She discussed how we can use the enthusiasm of our students to set a benchmark of brilliance which can then be used to raise the quality of student work throughout the year.

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Incorporating (Good) Active Learning in the Classroom

The Learning Scientists wrote this excellent blog about active learning. They discussed how active learning is very different from good active learning and suggested a number of ways that teachers could use this effectively in their lessons.

October

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In October, Shaun wrote this blog about getting the most from our lazy boys. The post included a number of excellent suggestions from teachers at Durrington in relation to how they teach their lazy boys.

The Secret of Effective Feedback

Dylan William wrote this excellent article, which focussed on the principles of proving effective feedback. It was a timely reminder for us at Durrington about the purpose of our feedback and the importance of ensuring that students use the feedback to improve their performance.

November

Chris Runeckles and I wrote this Bright Spots post based upon practical subjects. Our title ‘What can we learn from practical subjects?’ was actually an opportunity to celebrate the excellent work that takes place in practical subjects with a focus on modelling, explanation and practice.

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What learning looks like to me.

A Blog of the Week with a difference in November. Zoe Elder created this video post to share her thoughts on what learning looks like to her. Very thought provoking.

December

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Emma Bilbrough and Danielle Walters delivered an excellent 15 Minute Forum focussed on teaching Tier 2 vocabulary. This was a summary of their action research project with Brian Marsh, and discussed how important vocabulary is to students’ progress, as well as how MFL can be used to develop a students’ vocabulary.

10 Teaching Essentials and 10 Teaching Pitfalls

Tom Sherrington shared these excellent blogs about essential teaching qualities and potential teaching pitfalls. They are designed to be read alongside each other as many of the contents link together.

2016 was an excellent year and there are already a number of new developments planned for Teaching and Learning at Durrington in 2017. We look forward to sharing them with you.

Have a great Christmas and a Happy New Year.

Posted by Martyn Simmonds and Shaun Allison

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The art of mastery

The last 15 Minute Forum of 2016 was led by Kate Blight (Senior Leader – target groups) and focussed on mastery as an approach to teaching.

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What is mastery learning?

The overall aim of mastery learning is to ensure that students really understand and know the core elements of a topic/subject before they move on to new content. Mastery learning aims to break down subject content into specific units/areas, which are then taught until students have achieved this knowledge. It is based upon the notion that teachers shouldn’t teach a topic, hope that students have understood it and then move on; but rather that teachers should teach  a topic until they are sure that students have understood that knowledge.

The important aspect of mastery learning is that it is not simply enough for a student to know something, but that they are able to apply that knowledge in a range of different contexts. A good example would be the best mathematicians, who have complete and secure knowledge of the times tables and therefore can apply this knowledge to calculate the most challenging and difficult sums. The Education Endowment Foundation (EEF) have conducted a research study into mastery learning and a summary of this research can be found here.

Putting mastery into practice

Kate explained how she had used a mastery approach with some of her Maths classes. Initially she had trialled this approach with a low starting point set, but she has also used it effectively with high starting point students.

To begin with, Kate reviewed the Maths curriculum and identified specific topics where students would struggle (fractions for example). The students were then given a baseline test focussed on this topic and this was then marked. Once Kate had identified the areas of weakness for the students, she was then able to group them according to their common problem areas. The next activity focussed on Kate providing clear modelled examples to the students so that they were able to see the ‘correct’ way of calculating the answer. The modelling phase is then repeated, but this time with direct questioning to allow students to show their understanding. Students are then provided with deliberate practice and provided with peer support from the groups that they are working in. The next phase of the approach is to re-assess students’ understanding by asking them to complete the same baseline assessment. If there are still areas of weakness, the teacher would review this areas with a focus on ‘depth rather than breadth’ of knowledge. Finally, students would be tested again on the topic but using a different set of questions – are students able to apply their knowledge in a different context?

Where students had been successful in the baseline assessment and scored full marks, these students would be provided with enrichment activities. These activities would still be focussed on the core knowledge and understanding of the topic, but would allow them to apply their knowledge in a range of different and challenging contexts.

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The diagram above exemplifies the mastery approach. Kate has used this approach over a two-week (7 lesson) cycle and it shows the two different pathways for students, depending upon the level of understanding which is demonstrated from the baseline assessment.

The important point to note is that students must achieve 80% or above on either assessment to demonstrate ‘mastery’ of that topic and therefore be able to move on to new content.

How is it effective?

The EEF research (using a number of meta-analyses) has demonstrated that on average mastery learning approaches lead to 5 months extra progress over an academic year. The education_endowment_foundation_1200_630_75_s_c1_c_c_jpg__340x340_q85research also demonstrated that mastery works best when students work in small groups and take responsibility for the learning of others. It also appears that mastery learning is more effective when used as an occasional teaching approach, rather than the norm, as the impact of the approach decreases when used for more than 12 weeks. The final point to note from the research is that a mastery approach seems to be more effective for low starting point students, with an extra 1 or 2 month’s progress being seen over their high starting point counterparts.

What are the potential pitfalls of a mastery approach?

  • Kate has used a mastery approach in Maths, with a very skills based focus. There may be a greater degree of challenge for other subject teachers to implement it into their curricula.
  • To teach a mastery approach to learning effectively requires careful planning. It is not a simple teaching approach which can be delivered without careful consideration of where to use it and how to use it.
  • The EEF research found that there were two groups of outcomes:
    • Studies where students made a great deal of extra progress (5-6 months) or studies where students made very little progress.
  • If used across all subjects and all lessons, the impact of the approach may be diminished.
  • A mastery approach appears to be less effective when students work individually – therefore careful consideration of group size and make-up is required.
  • Management of those students who make rapid progress (and achieve above 80%) needs to be carefully considered so that their progress is not slowed by other students.

This research and Kate’s trials with her classes have found that a mastery approach, as opposed to a curriculum which has a pre-determined pace, is more effective in terms of student progress. However, there are now schools (such as Michaela) who are adopting this approach across the whole-school, in every subject and every lesson. It will be interesting to see the impacts of this approach.

Posted by Martyn Simmonds

 

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Getting gritty with year 7

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This term we have been talking to Y7 a great deal about grit.  What it is and why we think it’s important at Durrington.  We want our students to be gritty, because ultimately we think that will help them to be successful.  Angela Duckworth, Professor at the University of Pennsylvania, author of ‘Grit – The Power of Passion and Perseverance’ and founder of the ‘Character Lab’ thinks so too:

gritThe problem is, it’s a difficult thing, this idea of developing ‘grit’ and it has generated much discussion.  Is it something you can explicitly teach students?  No, I don’t think it is, and to think that you can, is overly simplifying something that is very complicated – our character and what forms it.  Character is based around the beliefs that we have about the world, and these are shaped by our environment and experiences, over time.  So, just telling somebody to change their character is likely to have limited success.

That said, I don’t think we should ignore it, but instead we should adopt a more pragmatic approach to it.  I think we can probably try to demonstrate to students what grit is and why it is important, and then try to develop grittiness, through our day to day teaching.  Undoubtedly, this is what legends like Mr Clarke and Pam McCulloch did on a daily basis!  I think that’s our best hope, rather than trying to simply teach ‘grit’.  This is what we have tried to do at Durrington.  Whilst their environment and experiences extend well beyond school, such as their family, friends and social media, we can try to shape the environment they are in at school and the experiences they have whilst they are with us, in such a way that it might make them more gritty.

The Y7 Grit Challenge

In September, Lesley Graney and I led an assembly to our new Y7 students about what it means to be a student at Durrington.   We talked about a whole host of qualities that we wanted our students to have e.g. hard working, having high expectations of themselves, taking pride in their work and learning from setbacks.  We also talked about grit.

We then set each Y7 tutor group a challenge.  As a group of people, they all had one term to learn something new.  They had to set themselves a target and then all stick with it – supporting each other on the way.  That was the only input they got – it was then over to them, to pick the new thing they were going to learn and then stick with it.

Last week, we visited each tutor group, to see what they had learnt – they had to show us what they had been working on that term.  It was amazing!  Some examples of what we saw in the tutor groups:

  • Learning to complete a piece of origami in timed conditions.
  • Learning and performing a song to the whole year group.
  • Solving mathematical problems in Spanish.
  • Counting in Japanese.
  • Learning to draw cartoon characters.
  • Learning sign language – and performing a song with.
  • Stacking playing cards as high as possible.

Then this morning, we had an assembly where some of the groups showed the whole year group what they could now do.  This was a fantastic event!  It was clear that many of the students have had to show real grit and determination to complete their challenge, despite the fact that they often felt like giving up.  As an example, in one of the tutor groups that learnt and performed a song, only four of the students in that tutor group had ever sang in front of an audience before – and here they were singing in front of over 300 of their peers.  A great accomplishment!

Does this mean that this ‘grit’ will be transferrable to their learning in subjects?  Who knows…probably not?  Maybe with some?  What we are hoping though, is that it might show them that with a gritty approach i.e. having a goal in mind, working hard and not giving up on it, they can be successful and achieve things they didn’t think were possible.

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Grit in the classroom

At Durrington, our teaching is based around six evidence informed pedagogical principles, as outlined in ‘Making every lesson count’.  Bearing in mind that students have five lessons every day, for the five years they are with us, the way in which we teach them probably has the best chance of developing character i.e. grit, than anything else.  So, what role does each principle play in doing this?

Challenge

  • We don’t set them targets in Ks3 or GCSE – we expect all students to set themselves the challenging goal of achieving excellence.
  • We don’t use differentiated learning objectives – we teach all students challenging content, and then support them with understanding it.  We want them all to have the long term goal of really understanding the complexities of the subject.
  • We share examples of excellence with students all of the time – so they know what standard is expected of them.
  • Our teachers are passionate about their subject and so hopefully this passion will become infectious.
  • More and more we are trying to raise the aspirations of our students by sharing with them, where the subject could take them in a future career e.g. by engaging with STEM based activities.  This is essential in terms of engendering a long term goal.

Explanation

  • We talk a great deal in subject teams about how to explain things really well – see here.
  • This gives students the best opportunity to acquire new knowledge and skills and therefore the confidence to believe that they can be successful.

Modelling

  • Hand in hand with explanation is modelling.  So as well as explaining new knowledge and skills carefully to students, we take the time to model to them how to use it.
  • An integral part of the modelling process, is showing students the mistakes that we make on the way and how to overcome them – and that this is fine.  For example, a history teacher may be modelling how to write a historical essay on the board.  In doing so, they might rub out a line, explain why they won’t be using that line and then how they could improve it with a better line.
  • Again, this gives students the confidence to then use this knowledge and skills themselves – and to acknowledge their own mistakes and learn from them.

Practice

  • Practice is essential for developing grit.  Once we have explained and modelled to students, we then give them the opportunity to practice using this new knowledge and skills.
  • This practice needs to be hard though.  There is no point in giving them something that will be too easy.  Hard work requires effort.
  • This will mean that they will fail, but that is fine.  We will support them to understand why they may have got that particular bit wrong, and how to overcome this in the future.
  • We report back to students and parents about the effort they are making in lessons, for each subject.  Effort is really high profile here at Durrington and informs much of the intervention work we do.

Questioning

  • We think about asking really challenging questions – think hard questions.
  • Only by doing this are we going to push students and get them to achieve their long term goal i.e. really understanding the complexities of the subject.

Feedback

  • Students need feedback, in order to keep going. Especially when things are hard – and we do make things hard for them!
  • The best teachers do this so well – they let them struggle just enough, so that they are really thinking, but give them enough feedback to direct this thinking in the right way.  So their feedback is supporting the struggle and not just giving them the answer to the struggle.
  • This keeps them moving in the right direction and shapes their thinking.

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Our Y7 students have made a fantastic start to their time at Durrington.  Is this because of our focus on grit with them?  Who knows.  It would be difficult, if not impossible, to determine a causal link.  We would like to think that it’s helping though.  We will continue with this next term and are currently thinking about the next grit challenge for year 7.  We want it to focus on the problem of how we move this work on to developing grit with individual Y7 students, many of whom don’t really have perfectly formed long term goals yet.  Watch this space.

If you have yet to hear Angela Duckworth talk about grit, here she is:

Posted by Shaun Allison

Posted in General Teaching | Tagged | 1 Comment

Teaching Tier 2 Vocabulary

 

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The 15 Minute Forum tonight was led by Emma Bilbrough and Danielle Walters (MFL teachers). During the last academic year, Danielle and Emma had conducted an Action Research project, with Brian Marsh (University of Brighton), investigating how MFL could promote the use of Tier 2 Language across the school.

What is Tier 2 Vocabulary?

Beck and McKeown (1985) created a three-tiered system of vocabulary based upon target words.

  • gp1Tier 1 Words
  • These are basic words which would usually appear in the majority of childrens’ everyday vocabularies.
  • These words should not require any direct teacher instruction to comprehend.

 

  • Tier 3 Words
  • These words are specific to subjects and only occur in unique domains.
  • These words require expert knowledge to explain to the students and aid comprehension.

 

  • Tier 2 Words
  • These words are not necessarily specific to subject domains but require students to have a ‘mature’ vocabulary in order to comprehend the meaning of the word.
  • These words are often integral to a students’ comprehension of exam questions or core subject knowledge.

Why does vocabulary matter?

Literacy is a current whole-school priority, in terms of developing our students’ vocabulary and use of language. In addition, the increased content and demands of the new GCSE specifications have highlighted a need for students to be ‘word-rich’. Daniel Rigney created the term ‘The Matthew Effect’ from his research into sources of inequity.

9780231149488.jpgHe described those students who are ‘word-rich’ as possessing knowledge of 7,100 words, whilst those students who are deemed to be ‘word-poor’ will have knowledge of less than 3,000 words. Rigney tells us that “While good readers gain new skills very rapidly, and quickly move from learning to read to reading to learn, poor readers become increasingly frustrated with the act of reading, and try to avoid reading where possible.” Essentially what this is telling us, is that unless teachers address the gap between the ‘word-rich’ and ‘word-poor’ students the gap will continue to grow and affect student outcomes; positively for those who are ‘word-rich’ but negatively for those who are ‘word-poor’. David Didau has blogged about Rigney’s work in more detail here.

Danielle and Emma wanted to investigate how MFL could be used to enhance the understanding of Tier 2 language of our students. Their premise was that Tier 2 words in English were often linked to Tier 1 cognates in Spanish or French. One such example is – ‘amable’ which in Spanish means ‘friendly’ but is closely linked to the Tier 2 English word ‘amiable’. To investigate this, Danielle and Emma tested two Year 8 groups – a control class and an experiment class. The two classes that were chosen were equally balanced in terms of ability; male/female split and PP student %. Each class were ‘tested’ using vocabulary starter activities.

The experimental group completed ‘dictionary race’ activities, which involved the students matching French and English Tier 1 words followed by a second exercise to match the English Tier 1 and English Tier 2 words.

The control group were exposed to English Tier 2 vocabulary. These students had to read sentences containing Tier 2 words and then chose Tier 1 words to replace them.

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After two rounds of ‘testing’ the difference in performance between the experimental and control groups were marked. The class that were exposed to French and English words (the experimental class) made significantly more improvement than those students who only experienced the English words (the control class).

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Whilst this is only a small sample, the significance of Tier 2 vocabulary is increasingly important in the success of our students. The use of Tier 2 vocabulary has increased in exam questions and specification content at GCSE and as such students are being exposed to a wider range of words that they may be unfamiliar with.

Danielle and Emma have continued to trial this approach with Year 7 MFL students at Durrington. In addition, they have gathered lists of Tier 2 vocabulary from other curriculum areas and are identifying links between these words and their French or Spanish counterparts. One such example is agriculture, used within KS3 Geography. A student in a recent Geography lesson very confidently explained what agriculture meant and was able to explain that they knew the meaning because the word ‘agriculture’ in French meant farming.

This approach is well-worth exploring in other schools as a means of developing students’ vocabulary and encouraging them to become ‘word-rich’.

Posted by Martyn Simmonds

Posted in 15 Minute Forums, General Teaching | Tagged | 2 Comments

World class leadership with Baroness Sue Campbell

img_4114Last week I was fortunate enough to attend the SSAT National Conference.  It was a great two days with some inspirational speakers – many of whom I got some great ideas from.  The highlight though was listening to Baroness Sue Campbell.  Sue was made Chief Executive of Youth Sport Trust in 1995 and has been Chair of UK Sport since 2003.  She started her  talk with the Olympic medals table (left) which illustrates the amazing legacy that this remarkable leader will leave.  Sue said that whilst financial investment into UK Sport had undoubtedly played a role, more important was culture.  In Sue’s words ‘Culture is about people and a belief’.  However, she also pointed out that you can’t just impose this belief on people, you need to learn about the people you are working with and take them with you.  This is what the best leaders do.

img_4115The best leaders create an environment of success, that allows people to succeed.   They do this by having a strong awareness of their own purpose:

“If you abandon your moral purpose, you don’t really have a purpose”.

Sue talked about where she found her inspiration for success and leadership.  She looked around a number of sports and successful people and got snippets from all of them, however, it was only when she really explored Formula 1 racing that it all became clear.  This showed Sue what it really took to become world class and she was able to distil this recipe into three clear areas.  Sue related these three areas to three key questions that the most successful F1 teams were able to answer.  They are great reflective questions for us as school leaders too.

img_41161. Can you eat your lunch off the garage floor?

Everybody in Schumacher’s team wanted to be world class, including Schumacher, the mechanics and the man who slept the garage floor.  Everybody knew their role and everybody wanted to do their role as well as they possibly could.  As a result, the garage floor was spotless and you could eat your dinner off it.  When questioned, the garage cleaner talked with passion about how he kept it so clean and why this was so important.  Some questions for school leaders:

Does everybody in the team know their purpose and place in the overall success of the team?  Does everybody in the team feel so well motivated and a part of the team that they want to be world class? 

2. How long does it take to change a tyre?

Everybody involved in the pit stop spent hours and hours practising their small part of the job e.g. taking the wheel nuts off, getting the wheel in position, removing the old wheel etc.  Their aim? To take 0.01 seconds off the pit stop time.  They would give each other feedback about how to improve and coach each other about how to improve.  They understood that the success of the team was down to everybody getting 0.01 better – the idea of marginal gains.  Huge changes in performance are hard, but small changes are manageable.

Do you encourage and support everybody in your team to get 0.01 better?  Do members of your team give each other feedback and coach each other to get better and better?

3. How long does it take to make a decision?

Engineers would scrutinise data and make split second decisions that would mean the difference between 1st and 4th place.  For example, with two laps to go, they calculated the amount of fuel they had left and concluded it was just enough to make two laps, without a time-consuming pit stop.  They did – and won.

Do you use data sensibly and then use this to make the right decisions for your team?

img_4117Sue talked about the importance of personal excellence, when the team are striving for world class.  As a leader, she would support this by asking questions of her team, rather than just giving instructions about what to do:

  • What do you do?

What could you do?

What stops you?

She also talked about being flexible with staff.  Find out what their strengths are and use these for the good of the team.

Sue finished her talk by leaving us with a question:

“Does every kid leave your school and think ‘You know what? I’m OK'”

Sue really is an inspirational person and it was a privilege to listen to her.

Many thanks to Sue Williamson, Tom Middlehurst and everybody else at SSAT for organising a great event.

Posted by Shaun Allison

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